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The Secrets of Memory:Part 2
Posted by newsbot on December 17th 2007

Major changes are expected in 2010 and 2011 as the industrymoves into45nm fabrication, 450mm wafer, 45 micro metre wafer thickness and 3Dchip packaging technology. There are many concerns made by companieswhen technology goes through a paradigm shifts, mostly related to thecosts of equipment replacement or retooling, and the degradation ofelectrical properties in some materials at 45nm or smaller. As the industry moves into 45nm and beyond, there will be moreelectrical resistances and electronic scattering effects. As circuitrydimension is reduced, electricity has more trouble flowing because ofgreater resistance in the smaller copper wiring, raising the risk ofdefects or compromising signal integrity.In addition to improving the ‘interconnect’ wiring conductivity,another interesting way to improve current flow is to reduce thetransistor resistive nature. Manufacturers use advanced materialscience to improve the fundamental die circuitries and in 2007, Toshibawas able to get 35 percent higher current flow from a transistor byusing a different material configuration and dispersing doping agentsin the boundary surface between the transistor electrodes and siliconsubstrate. There has also been some basic research into using Carbon Nanotubes(CNT) as the fundamental circuitries and interconnects. It is regardedas one of the promising elements in sustaining Moore’s Law well into2020. According to, Philip G. Collins, and, Phaedon Avouris, inScientific American (December 2000 issue), metallic nanotubes can havean electrical current density more than 1,000 times greater than metalssuch as silver and copper. Using Carbon Nanotubes is challenging on a few fronts for starters, thefabrication and circuitry layout processes are extremely complicated.Various manufacturing techniques have considered including print-on andgrowth approaches, but both are still extremely young and don't yetdirectly relate to the application in mass production ofsemiconductors.

View article at bit-tech.net

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